Rural land consolidation and management – the Polish dilemmas. Part 1
Jan Siuta 1  
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Honorowy Prezes Polskiego Towarzystwa Inżynierii Ekologicznej, Instytut Ochrony Środowiska – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Krucza 5/11, 05-548 Warszawa
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Instytut Ochrony Środowiska – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Krucza 5/11, 05-548 Warszawa
Publish date: 2018-06-01
 
Inż. Ekolog. 2018; 3:1–16
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ABSTRACT:
The Government of the II Republic of Poland attached a great importance to the elimination of the chessboard field pattern in rural areas. Pursuant to the Act of July 31, 1923 on land consolidation (Journal of Laws No. 92, item 118), 5,422,329 ha were consolidated in the years 1919–1938 (on average 27,116 ha annually), while the major consolidation work (1,144, 482 ha) was performed in the Białystok Province. After Poland’s liberation, until 1948, 372,800 ha of land were consolidated within the areas where consolidation was not terminated during the between-war period. Under the Manifesto of the Polish Committee of National Liberation of 6 September 1944, where the implementation of land reform was mentioned (Journal of Laws No. 4, item 17), no individual farmlands were merged. In the years 1969–1982, the geodetic land survey consisted in services for the State and cooperative farms. These services did not cover the improvement (modernisation) of individual farm holdings. Only the Act of 28 March 1982 on land consolidation and exchange (Journal of Laws No. 10, item 80) made some progress, but due to its vagueness and to the agrarian policy at that time, it did not help to modernise individual farms. The Act was the basis for consolidating some 42,529 ha of land in 1983. Starting from 1992, there was a sharp decline in the performance of consolidation works and that trend was progressing over the successive years. The chessboard field pattern is not limited to one village, but often goes beyond its limits and, in extreme cases, even exceeds the borders of the state. Due to the scale of this phenomenon and associated effects, the initiation of a large scale consolidation work is one of the most urgent tasks facing the Polish agriculture. In the first place, these works should cover large farms, whose lands are often scattered within a radius of several dozen kilometers from their farms. The implementation of consolidation works in the years 1983–2017 amounted to 647,774 ha, while the merged and exchanged land reached 818,875 ha.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Jan Siuta   
Instytut Ochrony Środowiska – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Krucza 5/11, 05-548 Warszawa